Perseverance has a narrow window that can be launched to Mars before the planet gets too far from Earth. Sometime, by 2020. August. In the middle, the rover took off from Launch Complex 41at Cape Canaveral Air Station near Orlando, Florida. It is currently scheduled to start on July 30, in weather conditions.
Perseverance will travel into space on the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket, the same rocket that NASA’s InSight landing gear and Curiosity rover were sent to Mars. After the perseverance reaches Earth’s orbit, the upper rocket stage will send a rover during a long cruise to Mars.
As soon as perseverance begins, its landing date is 2021. February 18 Lake crater. He will spend the intervening months flying towards Mars.
The cruise period is a very important time for engineers to continue check-in on the rover (inside the covered protective shell) to make sure all systems are ready for landing. As the perseverance approaches Mars, the engineers will ignite the hull engines so that the rover is in the right place to land on the Red Planet. However, such a final approach to Mars is only the first step in a complex descent sequence.
You may remember the sequence of “seven minutes of terror” that the 2012 NASA’s Curiosity router survived to launch the heaviest rover still raised to the surface of Mars.
Once in the atmosphere, Curiosity had to slow down for seven minutes from 13,000 miles per hour (20,000 km / h) when it reached the atmosphere to 0 miles per hour to reach the surface. Perseverance uses systems similar to Curiosity and will follow roughly the same sequence, but with more advanced technology.
According to the Curiosity sequence, the first part of the Stubborn landing will involve safe movement through the upper atmosphere of Mars.
The Persistence Heat Shield will glow when a temperature of approximately 2,900 degrees Fahrenheit (1,600 degrees Celsius) is reached. A poor atmosphere will slow the rover to about 1,000 miles per hour (1,600 km / h) before the system sends a huge parachute.
Unlike Curiosity, persistence will use a “range trigger” to deploy the parachute according to the spacecraft’s position relative to its landing target, which could improve landing accuracy and shorten the rover’s time to reach the required study area on even one ground. years.
Perseverance also features a more advanced version of the MSL Entry, Landing and Landing Devices (MEDLI) sensor, which Curiosity has conducted to see atmospheric properties. MEDLI2 not only collects data from the heat shield (as Curiosity did), but also the spacecraft’s counterpart, which means that part of the spacecraft is behind the shield.
Comparison with terrain
Like Curiosity, perseverance will land on the surface under a parachute at a speed of about 200 miles per hour (322 km / h). Perseverance will then allow for the introduction of even more new technologies to increase her chances of finding the right place.
For a proper landing, the router will use a fresh technique called terrain navigation. This is done by comparing the earth under the rover with previously obtained maps from the orbits of Mars. If the perseverance sees dangerous terrain up to about 985 feet (300 meters) in diameter, it can change direction and move to a safer area. This new technique allows you to stubbornly descend into difficult (and interesting) terrain with less risk of rovering.
The Stubborn has even more landing chambers than the Curiosity had. Perseverance includes a “camera up” on a parachute, a “downward” camera on the landing scene, an “upward” camera on a rover, and a “downward” camera on a rover.
Along with the microphone, the cameras are seen as “public engagement cargo,” allowing people to practically ride with the rover to the surface and watch the rover finish the last few feet (or meters) of landing, NASA reports. The cameras also provide valuable data to improve the safety of future Mars landings.
Near the ground, missiles will shoot to stabilize and slow the stubborn landing to the surface. However, rockets cannot get to the surface as an epic dust storm can occur. Instead, as with Curiosity 2012. – The “sky crane” will persevere to the surface on 21 feet (6.4 meters) of wires.
As soon as perseverance touches down, the sky crane will loosen the wires and fly down to land safely on the ground, away from the rover.
Perseverance will not interfere with the road, as researchers will want to make sure the rover is in order after landing. His instruments will be checked regularly, and the rover will also take some photos of his landing site so planners can target the best places to visit first.
When perseverance takes place, its long-term goals are to find rocks formed or altered by an environment that, according to NASA, “could have sustained microbial life in the ancient past of Mars,” or rocks that could have retained ancient chemical traces of life. Some of the rocks will be drilled and set aside in tanks for a future sample return mission to Earth. Perseverance will also try to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars. This is a technique that could be useful for future human missions.
Perseverance will not only surface. Driving downwards, there will be an ingenious helicopter that will test flying on Mars and “looking ahead” to future Red Planet explorers. The advantage of helicopters is that they can fly over dangerous terrain that is not accessible to routers such as steep hills or craters.
For test flights, the rover team will search for an area approximately 10 feet (10 x 10 meters) from 33 feet to 33 feet. Perseverance will allow the helicopter to be sent back and forth to monitor Ingenuity activity from a remote football field. Operators will work for six days on Earth and make sure ingenuity is safe. The helicopter will perform several test flights and is designed to last about 30 solos (on Mars days).