An international team of investigators analyzed ancient DNA from nearly 300 individuals from the Iberian Peninsula for more than 12,000 years in two studies published today . Current Biology and Science . The first study looked at hunter gatherers and early farmers living in Iberia between 13,000 and 6,000 years ago. In the second decade, the population of the region was examined. At the same time, these two documents significantly increase our knowledge of the history of this unique region.
The Iberian Peninsula has long been regarded as the starting point for the history of Europe's population because of its unique climate and position in the far western region. During the last ice age, Iberia remained fairly warm, allowing plants and animals ̵
In Spain, a man and a woman buried in the Bronze Age of Castillejo de Bonete had different genetic ancestors. (19659005) by Luis Benítez de Lugo Enrich and José Luis Fuentes Sánchez / Oppida
Iberian Hunters Collectors Show Two Ancient Paleolithic Layers
Current Biology ] Scientists Leading the Human History Max At Planck Institute, he investigated 11 hunter-voters and Neolithic people from Iberia. The oldest newly analyzed individuals are about 12,000 years old and were recovered from Balma Guilanya in Spain.
In the final work Balma Guilanya. ( CEPAP-UAB )
Previous evidence has shown that hunting collectors dominate in Western and Central Europe at the end of the last ice age, with ancestors associated with about 14,000 m. an age-old individual from Villabruna, Italy. It is believed that Italy, as well as Iberia, is a potential human refuge in the last ice age. Villabruna-related ancestors have fundamentally changed the former ancestors of Western and Central Europe in relation to the 19,000–15,000-year-olds associated with the Magdalenian Cultural Complex.
Interestingly, the results of the current study show that both lines existed in Iberian individuals who were 19,000 years old. "We can confirm the survival of the extraordinary paleolithic line in Iberia, the late glacier," says Wolfgang Haak, senior author of the Institute of Human History Science at Max Planck Institute. "This confirms the role of the Iberian Peninsula as a shelter over the last glacier, not only for fauna and flora, but also for human populations."
Prehistoric Hunters. CC0 )
This suggests that people who were not related to the last glacier of Villabruna soon replaced the Iberian hunters from Magdalen and Villabruna. related sources. This discovery shows an early link between the two potential refugees that led to the emergence of a genetic ancestor surviving the subsequent Iberian hunters.
"Hunters' pickers from the Iberian Peninsula have two older types of genetic ancestors: one that dates back to the last glacier and was once maximized for individuals belonging to the Magdalene culture, and the other one that was found everywhere in Western and Central Europe and the Magdalene line was replaced by early during the Holocene, except the Iberian Peninsula, ”explains Vanessa Villalba-Mouco, the first author of the study, from Max Planck Institute of Human History.
Scientists hope that continuous efforts to decipher the genetic structure of late hunters and electoral groups across Europe will help to better understand the past of Europe and, in particular, the assimilation of the Neolithic lifestyle caused by the expansion of farmers. The Middle East at Holocene
Ancient DNA from individuals over the past 8,000 years helps to clarify the history and prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula
Science is a document that focuses on slightly later periods and monitors the Iberian population over the last eight years by analyzing ancient DNA from many individuals. The study, led by Harvard Medical School and the Wide Institute, including Haak and Villalba-Mouco, examined 271 ancient Iberians from Mesolite, Neolithic, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age and Historical Periods. The large number of individuals allowed the team to draw more in-depth conclusions than was possible before.
These two La Braña skeletons in north-western Spain belonged to dark hair and blue eyes that lived 8,000 years ago and were most concerned with hunters in Central Europe. ( Julio Manuel Vida Encinas )
Scientists have found that by moving to a sedentary lifestyle, Iberian hunters contributed to the genetic composition of newly arrived farmers. from the Middle East. "We see that the local blend was supposed to be because Iberian farmers also have this double signature of hunters and electorate ancestors, exclusive to Iberia," explains Villalba-Mouco.
Between about 2500 and 2000 BC Ms. Kr. Scientists have noticed that 40% of Iberian ancestors and almost 100% of Y-chromosomes have been replaced by people with ancestral steppes from the Pontic steppe, a region that is today Ukraine and Russia. Interestingly, the findings show that in the Iron Age, "steppe ancestors" spread not only to Indian-European Iberian regions, but also to non-Indo-Europeans, such as the Basque region. Scientists' analysis shows that modern Basques are most similar to the typical Iberian Iron Age population, including the influx of 'steppe ancestors', but were not affected by subsequent genetic contributions that affected the rest of Iberia. This shows that the Basque speakers were equally affected by the genetic as well as the other groups that came to the Steppe populations, but in any case maintained their language. Only then did they become genetically isolated from the other Iberian peninsula.
Olentzero Beasaine. Gipuzkoa, Basque Country.
In addition, researchers studied historical periods, including the time when Iberia had Greek settlements and later Roman settlements. Scientists have found that at least during the Roman period, the peninsula's ancestors were transformed by a gene stream from North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. They found that the Greek and Roman settlements were quite multi-ethnic, and that the people of the Mediterranean and the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa and the local population had a long-lasting demographic and cultural impact.
"In addition to specific insights on Iberia, this study is an example of how a high-definition ancient DNA transect that continues in historical periods can be used to provide a comprehensive description of current population formation," explains Haak. "We hope the use of similar strategies in the future will be equally valuable insights in other parts of the world."
Top Image: Pontic Steppe Farmers radically transformed Iberian DNA 4500 years ago. Source: From the Forest
An article originally named " The unique variety of genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula revealed by double research" was first published in Science Daily.
Source: Max Planck Institute of Human History. "Unique Diversity of Genetic History of the Iberian Peninsula, Revealed by Double Studies". ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190314151551.htm
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