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Wandering males transformed in Spain's DNA



 Bronze Age male and female burials Image copyright
L Benitez de Lugo Enrich – Jose Luis Fuentes Sanch

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Bronze Age burials
                

DNA Evidence of Migrants Streamed Over the Pyrenees, replacing existing male lineages across the region within a space of 400 years.

Researchers reconstructed the population history of Iberia

Researchers reconstructed the population history of Iberia

They studied and analyzed DNA from 403 Iberians who lived between 6,000 BC and AD. 1

.600.

The Bronze Age male migrant traced some of their ancestry to the Neolithic (Stone Age).

Ancient Britons 'replaced' by newcomers

Ancient Britons 'replaced' by newcomers

Stone Age crisis

One of the triggers may have that is the age of the neonithic period (which preceded the Bronze Age).

As the steppe people moved west, they are picked up by the way. In Central Europe, one such mixed culture known as the Bell Beaker tradition formed. Image copyright

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The Beakers and their descendants may have a highly stratified (unequal) societies in Europe. new tradition: Bronze Age Bell Beaker pottery from Camino de las Yeseras near Madrid
                

The review of the chromosome – a package of DNA passed down more or less unchanged from father to son. It can be used to track male-line inheritance. By about 2,000BC, local Y chromosome lineages have been eliminated from the newcomers.

When the team analyzes DNA from across the genome

The newcomers of Bell Beaker originated from cells and were probably riding horses. .

Patterns of inheritance

Co-author Iñigo Olalde, from Harvard Medical School, US, said: " It would be a mistake that Iberian men were killed or forcibly displaced. " He added: "The archaeological record gives no clear evidence of the violence in this period."

Instead, the high social status of the newcomers may have been linked to greater reproductive success. Dr. Olalde told BBC News

A patrilineal and possibly patriarchal social structure would be more amplifying the observed patterns,

Fortified settlements

"At least in the east "The co-author Dr. Carles Lalueza-Fox, from the University of Barcelona.

In this r egion, the Iron Age Iberian culture established fortified settlements on high ground.

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Jeff Greenberg

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"The Iberians lived in the hill settlements and were a violent society, structured along tribal lines."

The Dama de Elche was a product of the Iberian culture on Spain's eastern coast
                

Survivors of the United States,

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The Alhambra Palace in Granada, Seat of the Last Muslim Emirate in Iberia
                

North African influence at the Bronze Age. When the armies seized back control of the peninsula. The conquerors expelled many Muslims,

While Many Moorish Individual Analysed in the Study, they are 50:50 mix of North African and Iberian ancestry in the peninsula today averages just 5%

Modern Iberians derive about 50% of their ancestry,

Faces from Iberia's past

Severed heads

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Archivo Museu d'Arquologia de Catalunya

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Severed Iberian head probably exhibited as a war trophy. A hole in the forehead marks the place where a huge nail was hammered in
                

People from the Iron Age Iberian civilization of the east coast generally cremated their dead. The cremation process is prevented by scientists from extracting DNA from these remains. The Iberians also had a violent bond. They are hammered by large nails through the severed heads of enemies killed in combat and exhibited them in public spaces as war trophies.

African ancestors

Two burials in the study were revealed in the Iberian settlement of Ullastret, allowing scientists to analyze DNA from them. . One of the people came from a 10th Century cemetery where they were buried in the Islamic tradition – oriented in the direction of Mecca. The other individual is from the 16th Century, after the Christian conquest of Granada.

Germanic migrant

After the fall of the Roman Empire, wandering tribes from northern and eastern Europe streamed into Iberia. The Visigoths, spoke a language related to Swedish, assumed control of the region. They founded the monarchy that continues to be used by later Christian kingdoms. Burials from Pla de l'Horta in northeastern Spain include a mother and daughter of Visigothic origin. Their genomes suggest that they have a history of Eastern Europe, while DNA is the most common cause of the disease. It's a sign of the genetic complexity of the Eastern steppe region

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